Boylston, Scott. Designing Sustainable Packaging. London: Laurence King Publishers, 2009. Print.
This book focuses on creating packaging prototypes that reflect sustainable and ecologically sound principles. It challenges the next generation of graphic designers to re-envision packaging design as a less environmentally destructive practice, and examines an array of techniques and methodologies for creating innovative and sustainable packaging designs, from first concept to final production. The book first embraces the theory, including many case studies, and then the practice of eco-friendly packaging design. This information will contribute to visual research and solutions, forming a basis for package re-design while meeting sustainability standards.
Brower, Michael, and Warren Leon. The Consumer’s Guide to Effective Environmental Choices: Practical Advice from The Union of Concerned Scientists. 1st ed. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1999. Print.
Paper or plastic? Cloth or disposable? Regular or organic? Some choices have a huge impact on the environment; others are of negligible importance. To those who care about their quality of life and what is happening on this planet, this is a vastly important issue. The Union of Concerned Scientists, devoted to environmental issues, wrote this book to help inform consumers about everyday decisions that significantly affect the environment. This book identifies the 4 Most Significant Consumer-Related Environmental Problems, the 7 Most Damaging Spending Categories, 11 Priority Actions, and 7 Rules for Responsible Consumption. This guide will provide insight of what the consumer ponders when it comes to decisions that affect the environment. It takes on both sides of the consumer-impact argument, the environmentalist movement and the industrialist perspective. The information presented features the consumer’s perspective and their concerns.
Brown, Tim. “Why Social Innovators Need Design Thinking.” Stanford Social Innovation Review, 2013. 2 Feb. 2013. <http://www.ssireview.org/blog/entry/why_social_innovators_need_design_thinking.>
Tim Brown asserts that while we have well-developed tools for tackling social issues based on thoughtful analysis and technological inventiveness, we have not applied design thinking to the exploration of new choices and alternative solutions. Design thinking is scalable and can be applied to improve existing ideas, or it can be applied to create disruptive solutions that meet the needs of people in new ways. Brown gives an example of Safepoint founder Marc Koska’s seeking to reduce the transmission of blood-born diseases through the reuse of syringes. Instead of bettering communications or package design, Koska chose to design an entirely new syringe that breaks automatically after first use. As design thinking is centered on innovating through the eyes of the end user, it can be applied by people from a broad range of backgrounds to problems ranging from creating new products and services to redesigning existing ones. This article will act as a guide of exploring the collaboration between the medical, waste, and design industries.
Butschli, Jim. “How leading pharma/device firms employ sustainability.” Packaging World, 3 July 2012. Packaging World. Web. 26 Jan. 2013. < http://www.packworld.com/sustainability/
Jim Butschil argues that medical device manufacturers and pharmaceutical firms are committed to sustainable practices, while patient safety and regulatory compliance takes precedence. These include not only material selection, but also facility management, processing, and packaging lines, while counting on packaging suppliers to be partners in these sustainability efforts. Butschil features companies including Medtronic Spinal and Biologics, Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, and Bayer. Part of this decision-making process requires companies to take a global sustainability perspective, such as European Union directives. This article details goals established by pharmaceutical companies, and their process of achieving them. Described goals include energy efficiency, conserving natural resources, purchasing sustainable products, eliminating waste, reusing and recycling materials, and reducing carbon footprint. A variety of package design solutions are employed, from using less ink to reducing carton board thickness. While other articles may say the pharmaceutical industry is slow to sustainability, Butschil says otherwise, providing an argument for the thesis topic.
Gold, Kathleen, R.N., M.S.N, C.D.E. “Analysis: The Impact of Needle, Syringe and Lancet Disposal on the Community.” Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology 5.4 (2011): 848-850. Print.
Kathleen Gold’s analysis argues that a sustainable plan must be developed in order to address the impact of home-generated pharmaceuticals and personal care products on the environment, which affects all areas of manufacturing and not just specific companies. As there is no current regulation in the United States, Gold explains the standard practice of patients depositing their medical waste products with their curbside trash – specifically syringes, lancets, needles, insulin pump tubing, continuous glucose monitor tubing, and insertion devices. This analysis forms a strong foundation and provides information on how graphic design (including all of its disciplines) can collaborate with the medical and waste industries to produce a more safe and environmentally conscious solution. The author asks thought provoking answers, to which she doesn’t have the answer, ranging from financial coverage to custodial safety. These are questions that can be addressed in research and survey questions.
Hay, Mariah Ruth. Design and Our Health: The Link Between Comfort, Aesthetics and Healing. MFA Thesis. Savannah College of Art and Design, 2009. Print.
As the cost of healthcare in the U.S. grows, individuals and companies are faced with this financial burden and are looking for alternatives. This objective of this thesis is to explore the psychology behind America’s complex relationship with the medical industry. By examining psychological, sociological and historical pretexts, the impediments to designing effective medical devices surface, providing a deeper understanding of damaging and dangerous oversights in current medical design. This understanding can be applied to a new generation of products that relate to the user on an emotional level, shifting the paradigm to what products Americans associate with illness and with healing.
Johnson, Kathryn, Wynne Grossman, and Anne Cassidy, eds. Collaborating to Improve Community Health: Workbook and Guide to Best Practices in Creating Healthier Communities and Populations. 1st ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997. Print.
Many of today’s toughest problems – violence, teen pregnancy, drug abuse, and crime – can be solved only through the collaborative efforts of community leaders. This book shows how key players from local governments, businesses, healthcare organizations, school boards, churches, and police departments can be turned into a team, working together to make their communities better places to live, work, raise families, and grow old. The book contains a wealth of resources including worksheets, guidelines, overhead slides, and case studies – all designed to help every community implement a plan of action. This workbook is also a guide through the Seven Core Processes, a synthesis of interrelated activities and events in which all-collaborative efforts engage. While this book may not seem related to design at first, it provides insight of how communities work together to produce workable solutions. This approach can be used for discussion regarding how community programs can be enacted for medical device waste.
Kelland, Kate. “Bioengineer Developing Needle-free Nanopatch Vaccines.” Reuters, n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2013. <http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/01/10/us-vaccines-nanopatch-idUSBRE9090GG20130110.>
In this online article, biomedical engineer Mark Kendall has developed a prototype “nanopatch,” a fingertip-sized patched covered in thousands of vaccine-coated microscopic spikes. The needle and syringe system was developed in 1853 and Kendall says at-risk people need something simpler, more stable, and easier to use. The engineer explains the cons of using the needle, from injection mechanics to refrigeration. Kendall explains the prototype is pain free, low cost, and easily transportable. The nanopatch has only been tested on animals, but hopes are human trials will be conducted this year. While this article focuses more on the industrial design aspect, it’s still a solution to be considered in the needle industry. The article does not discuss waste disposal, which is an issue even with this product. Since there are questions regarding the re-design of needles, this latest development could be used as a basis in discussion.
Leonard, Paul. “Sustainability in Medical Device Design: Turning Challenge into Opportunity.” Carbon Design Group, 2011. Carbon Design Group. Web. 26 Jan. 2013 <http://www.carbondesign.com/
Paul Leonard examines the disposal system and how the medical device industry has been slow to embrace sustainable practices. Businesses are managing for the triple bottom line – people, planet, profit – while medical design places safety, efficacy, and usability first. The author defines and explains the pressures being placed on medical device design and development: regulatory, market, social and corporate. One interesting aspect of this article was the explanation of why disposals came into the picture. Society quickly shifted away from the practice of reusable products – that were sterilized in between uses – due to the fear about the spread of diseases. This paradigm has largely been replaced with disposables and countless medical businesses have adapted the one-time-use model. However, because of these throw-away products, it’s not optimal because of production costs, waste costs, and environmental damages. This article offers valuable insight of the medical device disposal system as a whole and how business models can pressure other industries.
Sudeykina, Svetlana. Eco Labeling. Constructing visual messages to motivate respect and care about environment on the personal level. MFA Thesis. Savannah College of Art and Design, 2011. Print.
The popularization of eco-friendly products, caused by the upcoming environmental crisis, has resulted in the mass exploitation of the environmental agenda by market participants. This thesis examines the failure of the current labeling systems to effectively inform consumers of the pro-environmental qualities and post-consumer utilization options of products. The research discusses the shortcomings of measures historically and currently taken by the government, business and social activists to resolve labeling issues.
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES NOTE
Additional resources will be added in the future. Some of these will include articles on communities and countries, which have enacted a ban on needle disposal in household trash. They were not listed above as there are numerous references and individual policies, and the personal goal for this annotated bibliography version was to focus on founding resources for the thesis topic as a whole. For example:
Carroll, Jeremy. “Ban on needle disposal begins in Massachusetts.” Waste & Recycling News, 9 July 2012. Waste & Recycling News. Web. 26 Jan. 2013. <http://www.wasterecyclingnews.com/article/
“Disposal of sharps – needles and lancets.” Diabetes UK, 2012. Web. Diabetes, UK. 26 Jan. 2013. <http://www.diabetes.org.uk/Guide-to-diabetes/Monitoring/Blood_glucose/Disposal_of_sharps/>
Also, resources from various U.S. federal companies will be referenced in the future. For example:
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Needles and Other Sharps (Safe Disposal Outside of Health Care Settings). U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 12 Dec. 2011.Web. 26 Jan. 2013.
Environmental Protection Agency. Community Options for Safe Needle Disposal. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency, 2004. Print.